Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
KPFM is also known as surface potential microscopy, is a noncontact variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM). With KPFM, the work function of surfaces can be observed at atomic or molecular scales.
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique used in nanotechnology to create conformal layers of materials on a substrate. In our system we combine the plasma and thermal ALD for the deposition of uniform layers with excellent thickness control and coverage over complex three-dimensional structures.
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
X-ray crystallography is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Electron-beam deposition (E-beam)
Electron-beam physical vapor deposition (PVD) is a form of physical vapor deposition in which a target material is bombarded with an electron beam under a high vacuum level (∼10-7 torr). The E-beam system at KMUTT is used for preciously preparing a thin electron-transporting layer for our efficient perovskite solar cells.
Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL)
Photoluminescence lifetime is an intrinsic characteristic of a luminescent character that provides insight into the species excited state dynamics. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) is a choice for studying the electronic processes that result in the emission of photons– a process called “fluorescence”.
External Quantum Efficiency (EQE)
EQE-R quantum efficiency system is a PV cell tester that can provide cell EQE. IPCE, IQE, and spectral response data accurately and rapidly. The figure on the right shows the EQE spectra and the corresponding integrated current densities of the SnO2 (an ETL layer) and a modified sample.
Electrochemical impedance/ UV-vis spectrometers
EIS is a nondestructive electrical characterization method to investigate the charge dynamics in the bulk and/or interfaces of different perovskite materials with both electronic and ionic behaviors. UV-Vis Spectroscopy (or Spectrophotometry) is a quantitative technique used to measure how much a sample absorbs light. This could be done by measuring the intensity of light that passes through a sample with respect to the intensity of light through a reference sample or blank.
Dual (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering sources
Sputtering relies on a physical process where any particles of interest are ejected from a solid target material; this is due to the bombardment of the target by energetic gases. We use the RF&DC sputtering system for preparation of different layers of metal and semiconducting as well as composite materials. The advanced energy MDX 1.5K and RFX 600 equipped with ATX matching network are used as DC and RF power sources, respectively. A rotating substrate holder is installed in the system for uniformity of the deposited films.
Nitrogen purged glovebox
Within an inert atmosphere glove box, the use of dry nitrogen will also lower the oxygen content within equipment reducing any oxidation effects. These well-controlled atmosphere are most commonly used for preparing a high quality perovskite layers in our laboratory. It is used generally to prevent unwanted chemical reaction that may be degrading our sample.
Ultrasonic sprayed coating
Ultrasonic spray nozzles are constructed to vibrate longitudinally at high frequency by means of piezoelectric transducers. Within a collaborative work with Dr. Supasai in nano-photovoltage laboratory (http://nano-pv.sci.ku.ac.th/), the chemical-sprayed nebulous system has been designed and setup for low-cost thin film preparation. The utilization of co-misted generators containing different chemical sources benefits to prepare materials in different stoichiometries.
Home-Made Bending Test
Bending tests are crucial in the development and quality control of flexible devices to ensure their reliability and longevity in real-world conditions. In a lab, we also carry out these tests to improve the design and materials used in flexible perovskite devices and to meet standards/expectations.