Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
KPFM is also known as surface potential microscopy, is a noncontact variant of atomic force microscopy (AFM). With KPFM, the work function of surfaces can be observed at atomic or molecular scales.
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)
X-ray crystallography is the experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL)
Photoluminescence lifetime is an intrinsic characteristic of a luminescent character that provides insight into the species excited state dynamics. Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) is a choice for studying the electronic processes that result in the emission of photons– a process called fluorescence.
External Quantum Efficiency (EQE)
EQE-R quantum efficiency system is a PV cell tester which can provide cell’s EQE. IPCE, IQE and spectral response data accurately and rapidly..
Electrochemical impedance/ UV-vis spectrometers
EIS is a nondestructive electrical characterization method to investigate the charge dynamics in the bulk and/or interfaces of different perovskite materials with both electronic and ionic behaviors.
UV-Vis Spectroscopy (or Spectrophotometry) is a quantitative technique used to measure how much a sample absorbs light. This could be done by measuring the intensity of light that passes through a sample with respect to the intensity of light through a reference sample or blank.
Dual (DC/RF) magnetron sputtering sources
Ultrasonic sprayed coating
Ultrasonic spray nozzles are constructed to vibrate longitudinally at high frequency by means of piezoelectric transducers. Within a collaborative work with Dr. Supasai in nano-photovoltage laboratory (http://nano-pv.sci.ku.ac.th/), the chemical-sprayed nebulous system has been designed and setup for low-cost thin film preparation. The utilization of co-misted generators containing different chemical sources benefits to prepare materials in different stoichiometries.